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Native American Political Systems
and the Evolution of Democracy:

An Annotated Bibliography

Bruce E. Johansen
Professor of Communication and
Native American Studies
University of Nebraska at Omaha


Books, Scholarly and Specialty Journals

(*) __________. "Iroquois Confederacy." Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America: Volume 2. Detroit Gale Research, 1995.

Alfred, Gerald R. Heeding the Voices of Our Ancestors: Kahnawake Mohawk Politics and the Rise of Native Nationalism. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1995.

(*) Bruchac, Joseph, ed. New Voices From the Longhouse. Greenfield, N.Y.: Greenfield Press, 1995.

Calloway, Colin G. The American Revolution in Indian Country: Crisis and Diversity in Native American Communities. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

(*) Cassidy, James J., Jr. Through Indian Eyes: The Untold Story of Native American Peoples. Pleasantville, N.Y.: Readers Digest Association, 1995.

(*) Clinton, Robert N. "Symposium Rules of the Game: Sovereignty and the Native American Nation: the Dormant Indian Commerce Clause." Connecticut Law Review 27(Summer, 1995), p. 1055.

Coburn, Joseph, et. al. "American Indians," in Carl A. Grant, ed., Educating for Diversity. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1995.

(*) Deloria, Vine, Jr. "The Western Forum: The Struggle for Authority." Journal of the West 34:3(July, 1995), pp. 3-4. (*) Doxtator, Deborah. "Testimony Before the U.S. House of Representatives, Ways & Means Committee," May 1, 1996. In LEXIS.

D'Souza, Dinesh. The End of Racism. New York: Free Press, 1995.

Edmunds, R. David. "Native Americans, New Voices: American Indian History, 1895-1995." American Historical Review 100:3 (June, 1995), pp. 717-740.

(*) Foster, Michael K. [Review of Woodbury, Hanni, Concerning the League...] American Anthropologist 97:3(1995), pp. 582-583.

(*) Fox, Charles J. and Hugh T. Miller. Postmodern Public Administration: Toward Discourse. Thousand Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1995. (*) Gitlin, Todd. The Twilight of Common Dreams: Why America is Wracked by Culture Wars. New York: Henry Holt, 1995.

(*) Grinde, Donald A. Jr. "The Iroquois and the Development of American Government." Historical Reflections 21:2 (Spring, 1995), pp. 301-318.

Grinde and Bruce E. Johansen. Ecocide of Native America: Environmental Destruction of Native Lands and People. Santa Fe: Clear Light, 1995.

Hauptman, Laurence. Tribes and Tribulations: Misconceptions About American Indians and Their Histories. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995.

Hirschfelder, Arlene, ed. Native Heritage: Personal Accounts by American Indians, Past and Present. New York: MacMillan, 1995.

Howard, Jean, with Margaret Rubin. Manual for the Peacemaker. Wheaton, Illinois: Quest Books, 1995

(*) Jaimes-Guerrero, M. A. "Shifting Paradigms for an Anti-colonialist Discourse: Afterword." Historical Reflections/Reflexions Historiques 21:2(Spring, 1995), pp. 385-391.

Joseph, James A. Remaking America: How the Benevolent Traditions of Many Cultures Are Transforming Our National Life. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1995.

(*) Kickingbird, Kirke. "What's Past is Prologue: The Status and Contemporary Relevance of American Indian Treaties." St. Thomas Law Review 7 (Summer, 1995), p. 603.

(*) Lewis, David Rich. [Review, Lyons, et. al., Exiled in the Land of the Free. Journal of the West 34:3(July, 1995), pp. 121-122.

(*) Lewis, David Rich. "The Native Americans." [Video Review] American Historical Review 100:4 (1995), p. 1200.

Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: The New Press, 1995.

Mac Donald, Heather. "The Sobol Report: Multiculturalism Triumphant." in Hilton Kramer and Roger Kimball. Against the Grain: The New Criterion on Art and Intellect at the End of the Twentieth Century. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1995.

Magill Ready Reference: American Indians. Anaheim, CA: Salem Press, 1995.

(*) McDougald, Dana. [Review of videotape, "America's Great Indian Nations."] School Library Journal, August, 1995, p. 63. (*) Means, Russell. Where White Men Fear to Tread. New York: St. Martins, 1995.

(*) Merriam, Louise A. and James W. Oberly. United States History: A Bibliography of the New Writings on American History. Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 1995.

(*) Miller, Lee, ed. From the Heart: Voices of the American Indian. New York: Knopf, 1995.

Mintz, Steven. "A Guide to Recent Books in Native American History." American Indian Quarterly 19:1 (Winter, 1995), pp. 91-142.

(*) Nies, Judith. [Review, Lyons, et al., Exiled in the Land of the Free, 1992]. Harvard Review 9 (Fall, 1995), n.p.

(*) Pommersheim, Frank. Braid of Feathers: American Indian Law and Contemporary Tribal Life. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

(*) Powless, Robert E. "Iroquois Indians." World Book Encyclopedia: Volume 10. Chicago: World Book, Inc., 1995.

(*) Prucha, Francis Paul. "The Challenge of Indian History." The Journal of the West 34:1(January, 1995), pp. 3-4. (*) Shenandoah, Joanne and Diane. Education at the Ordway: Teacher Information Packet. St. Paul, Minn.: Ordway Music Theatre, 1995.

(*) Spicer, Michael W. [Review of Fox and Miller, Postmodern Public Administration, 1995] American Review of Public Administration 26:2(June, 1996), p. 251. (*) Valencia-Weber, Gloria and Christine P. Zuni. "Symposium: Women's Rights as International Human Rights: Domestic Violence and Tribal Protection of Indigenous Women in the United States." St. John's Law Review 69, at p. 69.

Volokh, Alexander. "The Green Crusade: Rethinking the Roots of Environmentalism." [book review] Reason, 26:10 (March, 1995), p. 62.

Wagner, Sally Roesch. "Is Equality Indigenous? The Untold Iroquois Influence on Early Feminists." On the Issues, Winter, 1996, pp. 21-25.

(*) Wiessner, Siegfried. "American Indian Treaties and Modern International Law." St. Thomas Law Review 7(Summer, 1995), p. 567.

(*) Wilbur, C. Keith, M.D. The Woodlands Indians. Old Saybrook, Conn.: Globe Pequot Press, 1995. (*) Wilson, Gail Hamlin, Associate Editor. Dictionary of Indian Tribes of the Americas. Newport Beach, CA; American Indian Publishing, 1995.

(*) Weaver, Jace. "Original Simplicities and Present Complexities: Reinhold Niebuhr, Ethnocentricism, and the Myth of American Exceptionalism." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 63:2(Summer, 1995), pp. 231-247.

(*) Wood, Gordon S. "A Century of Writing Early American History -- Then and Now Compared, or How Henry Adams Got it Wrong." American Historical Review 100:3 (June, 1995), pp. 678-696.

Newspaper and Magazine Articles

(*) __________. "Cyberguide." Netguide, September 1, 1995, p. 107.

(*) __________. "Science Instructor Wins Honor." Dallas Morning News, April 28, 1995, p. 2-K.

(*) __________. "Oneida Film: Indian Money Tells the Tale." Minneapolis Star-Tribune, November 23, 1995, p. 30-A.

Ackerman, Todd. "Being Creative About Others' Creativity; University of Houston Professor John Lienhard celebrates the Human Side of Technology..." Houston Chronicle, March 12, 1995, p. A-33.

Barreiro, Jose. "Bigotshtick: Rush Limbaugh on Indians." Native Americas, Fall, 1995, pp. 40-43.

Bradley, Bill. "Democracy's 'Third Leg.' Christian Science Monitor, February 27, 1995.

Britton, Bonnie. "'Indian' Out of the 'Cupboard,' Into Motivation." Indianapolis Star, July 21, 1995, p. E-1.

D'Souza, Dinesh. "Multicultural Lies My Teacher Taught Me." Arizona Republic [Phoenix], Perspective, September 24, 1995, p. F-1.

(*) Davidson, Nicholas. "Was Socrates a Plagiarist?" National Review 43:3(Feb. 25, 1991), p. 45. (*) Forrest, Elisibeth. "Times Slams Admiral Jeremy Boorda For Giving Credit Where Credit is Due." Washington Times, November 8, 1995, p. A-18.

George, Doug (Kanentiio). "Iroquois Have Good Reason to See Positives in Fourth of July." Syracuse Herald-American, July 2, 1995.

(*) Griffin-Pierce, Trudy. Encyclopedia of Native America. New York: Viking, 1995.

Huntington, Richard. "A View of the World from an Iroquois Perspective." Buffalo News, January 11, 1995, Lifestyles, p. 7.

(*) Iglesias, David Claudio. "Video/Audio Reviews." Native Peoples, Fall/Winter, 1995, p. 84.

Johansen, Bruce E. "Dating the Iroquois Confederacy." Akwesasne Notes, New Series 1:3 & 4 (Fall, 1995) pp. 62-63.

(*) Johansen. "Sovereignty Summit." Akwesasne Notes, New Series 1:3 & 4 (Fall, 1995) pp. 78-80.

(*) Johansen. "Making History is Dirty Business." Nuestro Mundo (Omaha), February 1995, p. 2.

Karash, Julius A. "Program Helps Indian Youths." Kansas City Star, August 20, 1995, p. A-1.

Mackey, Mary. "Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong" [review of James Loewen, Lies My Teacher Told Me]. San Francisco Chronicle, February 12, 1995, p. 3.

May, Pamela. [Review of Awaikta, Selu: Seeking the Corn Mother's Wisdom] Whole Earth Review, June 22, 1995, p. 74.

(*) McCaslin, John. "Inside the Beltway: the Great Pumpkin Speaks." Washington Times, October 26, 1995, p. A-5.

"Mohawks Look at Constitution," Associated Press in Plattsburgh [New York] Press-Republican, April 8, 1995.

Nizalowski, John. "Book Examines Indian Influences on America." Telluride Times-Journal, July 13-19, 1995, p. 28.

Nolan, Maureen. "Iroquois Women Serve as Models." Syracuse Post-Standard, April 8, 1995, p. B-3.

Pietrie, H. M. [Letter to the Editor]. Anchorage (Alaska) Daily News. August 6, 1995, p. 4-J.

Porter, Robert B. "Strengthening Sovereignty Through Peacemaking -- The Seneca Nation's Experience." Daybreak, Vol. 1, No. 5 (1995), pp. 14-16.

Saiz, Janet. "Treaty Opponents Ignore History" [letter to the editor]. Madison [Wisconsin] State Journal, March 22, 1995, p.9-A.

(*) Samuels, David. "Philanthropical Correctness: The Failure of American Foundations." The New Republic, September 18, 1995, p. 28.

Scott, Vernon. United Press International, Entertainment Desk, April 3, 1995.

(*) Seton, Tony. "Candidating Game." San Francisco Chronicle, September 10, 1995, p. 6.

(*) Sharkey, Alix. "Inside Story: Indian Giver..." The Guardian [England]. April 8, 1995, p. T-27.

Shaw, Christopher. "A Theft of Spirit." New Age Journal, August, 1995, pp. 84-92.

Vesburgh, Lois. "Roles to Fill: South Dakota Researcher's Work, Performances Connect to CNY." Syracuse Herald-American, January 1, 1995.

(*) Wagner, Sally Roesch. "The Untold Iroquois Influence on Early Feminists." Native American Press/Ojibwe News [Bemidji, Minn.] October 22, 1995, pp. 1,5. (*) Wandell, Jack. "Demonizing the Big Glass House." Akwesasne Notes, New Series 1:3 & 4 (Fall, 1995), pp. 118-120.

West, Woody. "The Way West: Series' PC Myth-making Turns Indians Into Saints and Whites into Savages." Washington Times, May 7, 1995, p. D-1.

Other items

  1. Video Tape, "America's Great Indian Nations," Quester Home Video (Chicago, Ill.). This hour-long tape surveys the histories of the Iroquois, Seminole, Shawnee, Navajo, Cheyenne, and Lakota. Five times the script mentions the idea that the Iroquois political system helped shape democracy. The film briefly recounts the founding epic of the Iroquois and notes Benjamin Franklin's use of Iroquois concepts. Tape received from John Kahionhes Fadden (who contributed artwork to it) January 9, 1995.

  2. Brochure, White Pine Primary School, Ithaca, N.Y., not dated: "White Pine Primary School is named in honor of the white pine tree, a symbol of peaceful cooperation for the Six Nations of the Hodenosaunee. Their democratic federation inspired Benjamin Franklin and other founders of the United States of America."

  3. Kevin Costner's "500 Nations," an eight-hour documentary aired in four segments on CBS during the spring of 1995, contained references to Haudenosaunee government and Benjamin Franklin's use of its concepts. TV Guide (Vermont edition, supplied by John Kahionhes Fadden), provides a sketch of the show (on p. 71), which says that the segment to be aired May 27 shows "how the democratic Haudenosaunee inspired Ben Franklin to press for Colonial independence from England." The primary conduit of the "influence" idea in this case was Derek Milne, a doctoral student at the University of California -- Los Angeles who works with the American Indian Studies Center, publishers of Exemplar of Liberty [1991].

  4. The "influence" thesis figured into several presentations and roundtable discussions at the Tribal Sovereignty Summit, organized by the Lummi Nation Treaty Task Force at the behest of the National Congress of American Indians to define ways in which Native nations can exercise greater sovereignty, and to report to the President, Congress, and tribal leaders. The summit, held in Washington, D.C., June 22-24, included a detailed description of Iroquois governance by Oren Lyons; Grinde and Johansen also presented papers; both also served on an editing committee for the conference proceedings.

  5. During November, 1994, a discussion group on the World Wide Web took up the Iroquois influence on democracy. Diane Carpenter Crews of Cornell University Cooperative Extension forwarded e-mail from this network. The subject apparently rose among intellectuals in Quebec who were discussing what kind of political system would evolve there if Quebec became an independent nation. [A referendum on the subject had just failed bu a narrow margin with 92 per cent of Quebec voters taking part.]

    Electronic copies of Arthur Parker's version of the Great Law of Peace are offered, along with a statement outlining its contributions to North American federalism, citing Charles Mee, Genius of the People [1987]. News of the interchange was relayed to Crews by Davydd J. Greenwood, Goldwin Smith Professor of Anthropology, Cornell University.

  6. Leaflet, The Tracking Project, Corrales, N.M., from John Kahionhes Fadden, January, 1996. The leaflet, titled "The Art of Traditional Peacemaking," describes tribal peacemaking traditions around the world, including the Iroquois Great Law of Peace. "Perhaps, just as the Great Law of the Iroquois influenced the United States Constitution, the understandings of traditional peacemaking will be adopted by the governments of the world to end the cycle of warfare that now overshadows our human family." The leaflet was created by John Stokes, director of The Tracking Project, and Louis Blue Cloud Greensfelder at a national Indian youth leadership program in Gallup, N.M.

  7. Video Tape (30 minutes), "They Lied to You in School: Ray Fadden Speaks." White Buffalo Multimedia, Woodstock New York. No date on tape; circa 1995. On this tape Ray Fadden, founder of the Iroquois Six Nations Museum in Onchiota, New York, and Mohawk culture bearer, talks of Indian contributions to American society, including the role of Iroquois democratic traditions in shaping fundamental law in the United States.

  8. (*) Internet posting: Glenn Morris [associate professor of political science, University of Colorado/Denver], "For the Next Seven Generations: Indigenous Americans and Communalism." Cites Johansen, Forgotten Founders [1982,1987].

  9. (*) Internet posting: "American Indian Movement of Colorado Reading List" ( Lists Grinde and Johansen, Exemplar of Liberty [1991]. List compiled by Russell Means and Professor Glenn Morris, Political Science Department, University of Colorado at Denver.

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