Next | ToC | Prev
Native American Political Systems
and the Evolution of Democracy:

An Annotated Bibliography

Bruce E. Johansen
Professor of Communication and
Native American Studies
University of Nebraska at Omaha


Books and Scholarly Journals

(*) Alschuler, Albert W. "A Brief History of the Criminal Jury in the United States." University of Chicago Law Review 61 (Summer, 1994), p. 867.

(*) Bennoune, Karima. "As-Salumu Alaykum: Humanitarian Law in Islamic Jurisprudence." Michigan Journal of International Law 15 (Winter, 1994), p. 605.

(*) Bernstein, Richard. Dictatorship of Virtue: Multiculturalism and the Battle for America's Future. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994. Boyd, Doug. Mad Bear: Spirit, Healing, and the Sacred in the Life of a Native American Medicine Man. New York: Simon & Schuster/Touchstone, 1994.

Caduto, Michael J. and Joseph Bruchac. Keepers of Life: Discovering Plants Through Native American Stories and Earth Activities for Children. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum, 1994.

Calloway, Colin G. The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices From Early America. Boston: Bedford Books/St. Martin's Press, 1994.

Champagne, Duane, ed. The Native North American Almanac. Detroit: Gale Research, 1994.

Champagne, Duane, ed. Chronology of Native North American History. Detroit: Gale Research, 1994.

Champagne, Duane, ed. Native America: Portrait of the Peoples. Detroit: Visible Ink Press, 1994.

Churchill, Ward. Indians Are Us? Culture and Genocide in Native North America. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1994.

(*) Crawford, Neta C. "A Security Regime Among Democracies: Co-operation Among the Iroquois Nations." International Organization, Summer, 1994 (Vol. 48, No. 3) pp. 345-385.

Gentry, Carole M., and Donald A. Grinde, Jr. The Unheard Voices: American Indian Responses to the Columbian Quincentenary 1492-1992. Los Angeles: American Indian Studies Center, 1994.

Grinde, Donald A., Jr. [Review of Gibson, John Arthur. Concerning the (Iroquois) League.] American Indian Culture & Research Journal 18:1(1994), pp. 175-177.

Grinde. "Teaching American Indian History: A Native American Voice." American Historical Association Perspectives 32:6 (September, 1994), pp. 1, 11-16.

Haan, Richard. [Review of Lyons, et. al., Exiled in the Land of the Free.] The Journal of American History 81:2 (Sept., 1994), pp. 641-642.

(*) Harvey, Karen D. and Lisa D. Harjo. Indian Country: A History of Native People in America. Golden, Colorado: North American Press/Fulcrum, 1994.

Hayden, Tom. "Running in Place: Pushing Past the Market in the Clinton Era..." Tikkun, January, 1994, p. 33.

Henry, William, III. In Defense of Elitism. Doubleday, 1994.

Jacobs, Wilbur. [Review of Lyons,, Exiled in the Land of the Free (1992).] American Indian Culture & Research Journal 18:1(1994), pp. 177-179.

Jemison, G. Peter. "Setting the Record Straight," in Marta Moreno Vega and Cheryll Y. Greene, eds. Voices From the Battlefront: Achieving Cultural Equity. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1994.

Johansen, Bruce E. [Review of Lyons, et. al., Exiled in the Land of the Free (1992)]. American Historical Review, 99:1(January, 1994) pp. 295-296.

Josephy, Alvin, Jr. 500 Nations: An Illustrated History of North American Indians. New York: Knopf, 1994.

Malone, John. The Native American History Quiz Book. New York: Quill/William Morrow, 1994.

Patterson, Lotsee and Mary Ellen Snodgrass, Indian Terms of the Americas. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, 1994.

Quinn, Arthur. New World: An Epic of Colonial America from the Founding of Jamestown to the Fall of Quebec. Boston: Faber & Faber, 1994.

Reeve, Christina S. Documents of Freedom: National School Celebration. Costa-Mesa, California: Celebration U.S.A., 1994.

(*) Snow, Dean R. The Iroquois. Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell, 1994.

Stern, Kenneth S. Loud Hawk: The United States Versus the American Indian Movement. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994.

Suagee, Dean B. and Christopher T. Stearns. "Indigenous Self-government: Environmental Protection...A Tribal Review." Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy, Winter, 1994, pp. 59-104.

(*) Versluis, Arthur. Native American Traditions. Shaftsbury, Dorset, Great Britain: Element Publishers, 1994. Wallace, Paul A. W. The White Roots of Peace: The Iroquois Book of Life. Santa Fe, N.M.: Clear Light Publishers, 1994.

(*) Williams, Robert A., Jr. "Linking Arms Together: Multicultural Constitutionalism in a North American Indigenous Vision of Law and Peace." California Law Review 82 (July, 1994), p. 981.

Wunder, John R. "Retained by the People:" A History of American Indians and the Bill of Rights. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Trade Magazines, Newspapers and Specialty Journals

Ahear, Lorraine. "Proposed Tribal Constitution Would Shift Power." Greensboro, N. C. News & Record, June 26, 1994, p. B-2.

Alexander, James. "Europeans, Not Indians, Gave Us Models for the Constitution." [Letter to the Editor] Washington Times, June 13, 1994, p. A-20.

Anquoe, Bunty. "President Offers Hope." Indian Country Today, May 4, 1994, pp. A-1, A-2.

Bialczak, Mark. "Shenandoah Opens Woodstock With Call for Peace." Syracuse Herald-Journal, August 12, 1994, pp. A-1, C-5.

(*) Brown, Brian D. "Why We Need to Change the Way We Teach History." Washington Times, June 7, 1994, p. A-16.

Callinan, Veronica. "Egocentric 'Crusade' Mentality Still Lives." [Letter to the editor] Toronto Star, March 5, 1994, p. B-3.

Carman, John. "TBS Series Beats its Breast in Series on Indians." San Francisco Chronicle, October 10, 1994, p. E-1.

Chasing Bear, Oowah Nah. [Letter to the editor] The Indianapolis News, October 21, 1994, p. A-13.

Clinton, William [President]. "Guest Essay." Native Peoples. 7:4(Summer, 1994), p. 5.

Garmel, Marion. "The Other Side of History: Ted Turner's Three Channels Focus on Native Americans." Indianapolis News, October 10, 1994, p. D-1. George, Doug (Kanentiio). "Indian Reservations Have Reasons for Not Welcoming Anthropologists." Albany Times Union, November 15, 1994, p. A-14.

Goodman, Walter. "A Romantic Tribute to the First Americans." New York Times, October 10, 1994, p. C-16[Cultural Desk].

Hall, Steve. "Turner Series Shows Tribes' Side of History." Indianapolis Star, October 4, 1994, p. C-7.

(*) Holston, Noel. "Feelings Compete With Facts in TBS' 'Native Americans.'" Minneapolis Star-Tribune, October 10, 1994, p. 1-E.

Hopkins, John Christian. "Native Perspectives." Gannett News Service, June 30, 1994.

Johnson, Nathan B. "Bulldozing the Religion of Indigenous Peoples." San Francisco Chronicle, July 22, 1994, p. A-23.

Karlin, Rick. "Exploring Cures From the Iroquois...Author Shares Iroquois Discoveries." Albany Times-Union, November 3, 1994.

(*) Kessler, Barbara. "How Aware Are You?" Dallas Morning News, April 25, 1994, p. 1-C.

Kowinski, William S. "White by Birth, Indian by Choice..." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, November 27, 1994, p. 6.

Leo, John. "On Society: The Junking of History." U.S. News and World Report, Feb. 28, 1994, p. 17.

Lipsyte, Robert. "Tonto: Onondaga Chief Oren Lyons, Native American..." Esquire, February, 1994, p. 39.

Palazzetti, Agnes. "Officials to Close Reservation Bingo Hall..." Buffalo News, March 19, 1994, n.p.

Palmer, Louise. "Schools Feel Backlash to PC in Classrooms." Newhouse News Service, in Chicago Sun-Times, February 20, 1994, p. 36.

(*) Pine, Ed Kimmel. "Senator Hart Treated Unfairly." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 17, 1994, p. NV-5.

Reese, Charley. "Americans: Knowledge of Past is Key to Retaining Your Liberty." Orlando Sentinel, February 1, 1994, p. A-8.

Rheingold, Howard. "Singer On-line With Indian Culture." San Francisco Examiner, July 13, 1994, p. C-2.

Osborne, Lawrence. "Brutality and Chivalry in a Stormy New World." [Review of Arthur Quinn, New World: An Epic of Colonial America] Newsday, June 23, 1994, p. B-8.

(*) Seigel, Suzie. "Setting the Record Straight on Facts of Indian History." Tampa Tribune, November 14, 1994, p. 1 [Baywatch Section].

Vann, Dee. "Here to Stay." [Letter to the editor] San Francisco Chronicle, August 6, 1994, p. A-20.

Walters, Colin. "Excellent Arguments for Elitism...[Review of William Henry III, In Defense of Elitism, 1994] Washington Times, September 11, 1994, p. B-6.

Waters, Harry F. "On the Trail of Tears." Newsweek, October 10, 1994, p. 56.

Weiskind, Ida. "America's Storied History Worth Telling...Native American Tribal Structure Contributed Much to Our Constitution." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 3, 1994.

Yoder, Edwin M. [Review of William Henry III, In Defense of Elitism, 1994]. Atlanta Journal and Constitution, October 9, 1994, p. N-8.

Other Items

  1. Correspondence, Donald A. Grinde, Jr. and Carla Ponti, projects editor, Davidson and Associates Publishers, Torrance, California, January, 1994. Ponti is projects editor for Vital Links, an eighth-grade American history course in CD-ROM that the publisher is developing with several large state departments of education (California, Texas, Florida, et. al.), "a multimedia history of the U.S." Ponti requested material describing the Native American role in shaping democracy.

  2. Film: "Kahnasatake [Oka]: 270 Years of Resistance," National Film Board of Canada, film maker Alanis Obomsawin. This two-hour film chronicles the crisis at Oka, Quebec, which flared into violence during the summer of 1990. The film, which won an award as Best Canadian Film at the Toronto Film Festival (1993), describes Iroquois history and governmental structure, including an assertion that the Iroquois system "influenced the adoption of a democratic charter in North America." The film was shown on the Canadian Broadcasting System in early 1994.

  3. Correspondence, Jewell Praying Wolf James (Lummi), chair, Lummi Treaty Protection Task Force, to Johansen, March, 1994, requesting review of draft statement on U.S. Indian policy being readied for consideration by the Clinton White House under the aegis of the National Congress of American Indians. The statement contains assertion of the "influence thesis" in the context of constitutional law as it affects Native Americans. This statement was delivered to Clinton and officials of the Interior Department, including the Bureau of Indian Affairs, at a White House meeting with delegates of 545 recognized tribes April 29, 1994.

    The mailing from James also contained a leaflet titled "Indian Pledge of Allegiance," which reads:

      I pledge allegiance to my tribe,
      To the democratic principles
        of the republic;
      and to the individual freedoms
      Borrowed from the Iroquois
        and Choctaw confederacies,
      As incorporated into the
        United States Constitution,
      So that my forefathers
        shall not have died in vain.

    The pledge was written by James and first read by Joseph de la Cruz, president of the Quinault Indian Nation, at the National Congress of American Indians (Tribal-states relations panel), Reno, Nevada, December 2, 1993, "dedicated to American Indian and Alaska Native veterans, leaders, people, and children."

  4. On April 29, 1994, the White House invited representatives of 545 Native tribes and nations to a conference to formulate a Clinton Indian Policy. This was the first time in the history of the United States that so many representatives had been invited to confer at once. In his remarks to the gathered Native leaders, Clinton referred to "our common heritage," including sophisticated cultures...[including] democracy...long before the U.S. Constitution." The speech was broadcast live on C-SPAN; video tape in files.

  5. Correspondence from John Kahionhes Fadden, Onchiota, N.Y., August 24, 1994: "A few days ago, I got a call from a woman from the NYC Museum of the American Indian. She was interested in using images of Ben Franklin and the Iroquois which I had generated in a touch-screen production earmarked for their eventual relocation in the Old Customs House."

  6. Correspondence from Fadden, September 9, 1994, regarding negotiation for use of eight images originally drawn for Exemplar of Liberty [1991] by Turner Broadcasting System (TBS), Atlanta, Georgia, for use in a television documentary which will discuss the "influence issue." Fadden says that John Mohawk, Seneca historian, will be doing the voiceover with the artwork. The series of programs, "the Native Americans," was broadcast on TBS October 10, 11, and 13, 1994.

  7. E-mail from Grinde, December 4, 1994. While at an academic conference hosted by UCLA Indian Studies December 3, Grinde met with Tom Hayden. Hayden indicated that he had read The Iroquois and the Founding of the American Nation (1977), and Forgotten Founders (1982). Hayden, now a California state senator, bought all copies of Exemplar of Liberty (1991) offered at the conference by the UCLA American Indian Studies Center, the book's publisher. Grinde indicates that a second printing of Exemplar will take place soon.

  8. "Trends in the News," Trends Research Institute [Rhinebeck, N. Y.] July 1, 1994. [Found in LEXIS]. The Trends Research Institute forecasts that, by the year 2005, American notions of patriotism will be refigured to include Native American traditions. "Laws also will reflect newly discovered elements of early Indian cultures. In fact, some of these elements, especially those of the Iroquois Confederacy, will experience a rebirth. Many Iroquois principles are said to have influenced the framers of the Constitution more than 200 years ago." This forecast was composed by Gerald Celente, director of the Trends Research Institute.

  9. Transcript, "Talk Back Live," Cable News Network, October 28, 1994. This talk show, which aired at 1 a.m. Eastern time, contained a segment in which Lynne Cheney, conservative director of the National Endowment for the Humanities under President George Bush, debated with Suzan Shown Harjo. The exchange covered a number of topics, one of which was assertion of Iroquois influence on the evolution of democracy. Harjo began the exchange, with reference to what sort of material should be taught in mainstream history books: "I think it's awfully important to learn about the very great framers of the United States Constitution, who were...the Iroquois people, the Natchez people, the Muskogie people [who influenced] Benjamin Franklin, [George] Morgan, and Jefferson, [who] found camaraderie with...nations confederated for peacetime purposes. They didn't find that working model in Europe; they found it here with the native confederacies." Cheney replied: "It's not at all clear that historically accurate. This is a hotly debated point. I think that if [this] type of thing is to go into our textbooks, we certainly need to point out to students that it's a hotly debated point."

Next | ToC | Prev

back to 6 Nations | many worlds | rat haus | Index | Search | tree