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Native American Political Systems
and the Evolution of Democracy:

An Annotated Bibliography

Bruce E. Johansen
Professor of Communication and
Native American Studies
University of Nebraska at Omaha


Books, Scholarly, and Specialty Journals

Allen, Paula Gunn. "Who is Your Mother? Red Roots of White Feminism." in Rick Simonson and Scott Walker, The Graywolf Annual Five: Multicultural Literacy. St. Paul: Graywolf Press, 1988, pp. 13-27.

Axtell, James. After Columbus: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Barreiro, Jose, ed. Indian Roots of American Democracy. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell American Indian Program, 1988.

Barreiro, Jose. "Commentary." Northeast Indian Quarterly, Fall, 1988, pp. 4, 52.

Burton, Bruce A. "A Call to Classroom Consciousness: Reflections on Teaching American History." Turtle Quarterly Winter, 1988, pp. 6-10.

Fresia, Jerry. Toward an American Revolution: Exposing the Constitution and Other Illusions. Boston: South End Press, 1988.

Johansen, "Vox Americana." Northeast Indian Quarterly, Fall, 1988, pp. 18-25.

Johansen, "Democracy and a Constitution: Indian Influences on the United States." Turtle Quarterly, Winter, 1988, pp. 2-5.

Simonson, Rick and Scott Walker. Multicultural Literacy. Minneapolis: Gray Wolf Press, 1988.

Smith, Lisa M. "Working Pictures Signs Blume..." Back Stage, February 5, 1988.

Tooker, Elisabeth. "The United States Constitution and the Iroquois League." Ethnohistory 35:4(Fall, 1988), pp. 305-336.

Wagner, Sally Roesch. "The Iroquois Confederacy: A Native American Model for Non-sexist Men." Changing Men, Spring-summer, 1988, p. 32-33.

Weatherford, Jack. Indian Givers: How the Indians of the Americas Transformed the World. New York: Crown, 1988.

Newspapers and Magazines

__________. "Smithsonian Official Talks of Indians' Historic Role." [United Press International] October 9, 1988.

__________. "Northeast Wisconsin News Briefs." [United Press International] May 19, 1988.

__________. "Philippine Minister Challenges North on Democracy." [Interpress Service] May 5, 1988.

_________. "Pow Wow Opens in Baltimore." [United Press International], August 26, 1988.

Banks, Gail. "Indian Givers." Boston Magazine, November, 1988, pp. 140, 143-145.

Barreiro, Jose. "The Iroquois Influence: Cornell Conference Showed Ties to U.S. Constitution, Syracuse Post-Standard, Oct. 12, 1988, p. A-11.

Binder, David and Martin Tolchin. "Washington Talk, Briefing: The First Constitution." New York Times, September 12, 1988.

Boslet, Mark. "Contributions of Indians Told at Columbus Day Event." Waterbury Republican [Waterbury, Conn.] October 11, 1988, pp. B-1, B-2.

Dougherty, Philip H. "American Indian Group Sponsors Ad Campaign." New York Times, July 27, 1988, p. D-18 [Financial desk].

Farrell, Marybeth. [Untitled; Dispatch from States News Service] October 4, 1988.

Farrell, Marybeth. [Untitled; dispatch from States News Service] September 30, 1988.

Farrell, Marybeth. [Untitled] States News Service, October 26, 1988.

Farrell, Marybeth. "Historians Debunk Iroquois Influence on the Constitution," States News Service in Syracuse Post-Standard, September 24, 1988, p. A-3.

Farrell, Marybeth. [Untitled, States News Service] September 17, 1988. In LEXIS.

Grinde, Donald A., Jr. [Letter to the editor], Washington Post, April 30, 1988.

Johansen. "President's Remarks Showed Ignorance of the Past." Alliance [Nebraska] Times-Herald, June 20, 1988.

(*) Johansen, Bruce E. "American Indian History" [Letter to the Editor]. The New Republic, December 19, 1988, p. 4.

Kahn, Daniel. "Agency Takes Up Challenge for Free." Newsday, August 1, 1988, p. 5.

Krauthammer, Charles. "A Battle Lost at Stanford." Washington Post, April 22, 1988.

Newman, Michael. "the Iroquois and the Constitution: Founding Feathers." New Republic, November 7, 1988, pp. 17-18.

Peck, Ira. "The People of the Longhouse." Junior Scholastic, October 21, 1988, pp. 12-14.

Tewkesbury, Don. "NW[Northwest] Tribes Angry at Reagan's Remark." Seattle Post-Intelligencer, June 1, 1988, p. A-9.

Venables, Robert W. "Reagan Remarks Insult Native Americans." [Letter to the editor] New York Times, June 23, 1988, p. A-22.

Scholarly Conferences and Public Events

  1. Program, "The Living Constitution," University of South Dakota, Vermillion, October 5-6, 1988. Johansen delivered a presentation at this event, which was later published. [Akwesasne Notes, 1991]. He also met briefly with Warren Burger, retired Chief Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court and Chairman of the U.S. Bicentennial Commission, who was the conference's keynote speaker.

  2. Program, "We Desire to Sit Under the Same Tree of Peace..." Philadelphia, Penn., April 29-May 2, 1988. Organized by Toni Truesdale and the United Indians of Delaware Valley, et. al., this was the first of several events in Philadelphia which provided a forum for the "influence thesis." Truesdale had attended the Cornell conference [1987], and it was at her house that Grinde and Johansen first came to know each other, personally and decided to collaborate on Exemplar of Liberty [1991].

  3. Gail Landsman, "Portrayals of the Iroquois in the Woman Suffrage Movement," Paper presented at the annual Conference on Iroquois Research, Rensselaerville, New York, October 8, 1988.

Other Materials

  1. "The Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), the Colonists and the U.S. Constitution," project assembled by Mrs. Heacock's third-grade class, Weller Elementary School, Fairbanks, Alaska.

  2. Collection of letters regarding Haudenosaunee: Past, Present, Future, from critics of the guide, as well as Grinde, Johansen, et. al. This package also contains the text of a statement debunking the "influence thesis" signed by Axtell, Fenton, Jennings, Tooker, et. al. This statement was submitted to the New York Times as an op-ed piece, but was not published.

  3. "You're Looking at the First Draft of the Constitution," Public service advertisement for American Indian Arts and Amerinda, New York City. Created by Drossman Lehman Marino Advertising Agency, New York City. This ad, which ran in People and Newsweek, depicts an Iroquois wampum belt and discusses Franklin and Jefferson's views on native governance. Copy from Advertising Age, "Global Gallery: Creative Advertising From Around the World," October 10, 1988.

  4. Personal letter and attachment to Johansen from Eleanor M. Herbert, Independence Park, Philadelphia, May 9, 1988. Ms. Herbert, a park ranger, waged a campaign to have Native American contributions to democracy observed at the national urban park in Philadelphia which includes Independence Hall. She also sought to have Forgotten Founders sold in the park bookstore, and succeeded, for a time, until her superiors ordered the book removed.

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