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Native American Political Systems
and the Evolution of Democracy:

An Annotated Bibliography

Bruce E. Johansen
Professor of Communication and
Native American Studies
University of Nebraska at Omaha


Books, Scholarly, and Specialty Journals

Clifton, James. The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1990.

Johansen and Grinde. "The Debate Regarding Native American Precedents for Democracy: A Recent Historiography." American Indian Culture & Research Journal 14:1 (Summer, 1990), pp. 61-88.

Johansen, "Native American Societies and the Evolution of Democracy in America, 1600-1800," Ethnohistory 37:3(Summer, 1990), pp. 279-290.

Lowi, Theodore J. and Benjamin Ginsberg. American Government: Freedom and Power. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1990.

(*) MacLaine, Craig and Michael S. Baxendale. This Land is Our Land: The Mohawk Revolt at Oka. Montreal: Optimum Publishing International, 1990.

McGaa, Ed. Mother Earth Spirituality. San Francisco: Harper, 1990.

(*) Morocco, Maria. "Rediscovering the Roots of American Democracy." Human Rights, Vol. 17 No. 3 (Fall, 1990), pp. 38-39.

Nollman, Jim. Spiritual Ecology: A Guide to Reconnecting With Nature. New York: Bantam, 1990.

(*) Ravitch, Diane. "Multiculturalism: E Pluribus Plures." American Scholar 59 (1990), pp. 337-354.

(*) Shenandoah, Audrey. "Women: Sustainers of Life." Turtle Quarterly [Niagara Falls, N.Y.], Summer, 1990, pp. 5-10. Tooker, Elisabeth, "Rejoinder to Johansen," Ethnohistory 37:3 (Summer, 1990), pp. 291-297.

(*) Williams, Robert A., Jr. "Gendered Checks and Balances: Understanding the Legacy of White Patriarchy in an American Indian Cultural Context." Georgia Law Review 24 (1990), p. 1019.

Waldman, Carl. Who Was Who in Native American History. New York: Facts on File, 1990.

Yarrow, David. The Dragon and the Ice Castle: Rediscovery of Sacred Space in the Finger Lakes. Charlottesville, VA: Solstice, circa 1990.

Newspapers and Magazines

__________. "Interior Kicks Off Indian Month Celebration." Indian News: Week in Review. Vol. 14, No. 13. Washington, D.C.: Department of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. November 2, 1990, p. 2.

Berger, Joseph. "Now the Regents Must Decide if History Will be Recast," New York Times [Week in Review], Feb. 11, 1990.

Fadden, John Kahionhes. "Democracy," Letter to the Editor, Massena [New York] Daily Courier-Observer, November 3, 1990.

Gastil, Raymond D. "What Kind of Democracy." The Atlantic, June, 1990, p. 92.

Grenier, Richard. "Historic Identity Crises." Washington Times, March 27, 1990, p. F-3.

Grenier, Richard. "The New Treason of the Clerks: Criticism of American Liberal Intellectuals." National Review 42:14 (July 23, 1990), p. 42.

Hart, Jeffrey. "Japan to the Rescue: Japanese Higher Education." National Review, May 28, 1990, p. 39.

Hendricks, Mike. "Does Constitution Copy Confederacy?" Associated Press in Syracuse Herald-American, July 18, 1990.

House, Billy. "Regents Tackle Social Studies." Gannett News Service, Feb. 16, 1990.

Johnson, Margaret. "A Historic Year." St. Louis Post-Dispatch, January 1, 1990, p. 2-B.

Jones, Clive. "Two Founding Peoples Ignore the Aboriginals." [Letter to the editor] Toronto Star, August 20, 1990, p. A-14.

Leo, John. "A Fringe History of the World," U.S. News & World Report, November 12, 1990, pp. 25-26..

Morocco, Maria. "Indians Reclaim Legal History." American Bar Association Journal, August 6, 1990, p. 5.

New York Post. "The Sobol-Jeffries Victory." [Editorial], May 14, 1990.

(*) Pareles, Jon. "American Indian Music Helps a Culture Hold On." New York Times, December 4, 1990, p. C-15.

Ringwald, Christopher. "Ancient Teachings Inspire His Life." Albany Times-Union, April 9, 1990.

(*) Schrader, Andrea. "Rights of Women Discussed." [Oswego] Palladium-Times, March 26, 1990. Shepard, Daniel. "Native American Women: Real Symbol of Freedom," University of Nebraska at Omaha Gateway, March 20, 1990, p. 4.

Starna, William A. "Whose History Will be Taught, and What is History Anyway?" [Letter to the editor] New York Times, March 7, 1990.

(*) Stout, J. Dean. "Finding Kindred Spirits is the Key." Lewiston [Idaho] Morning Tribune, July 7, 1990, p. 5-B.

Wood, Nancy. "Clashing Views Over Sovereignty." Maclean's, September 10, 1990, p. 18.

Other Materials

  1. Leaflet regarding "National American Indian Heritage Month" [November, 1990], citing resolutions passed by the United States Senate and House of Representatives, dated August 3, 1990. The resolution states, in part: "Whereas the people and the government of the United States should be reminded that certain concepts such as freedom of speech, the separation of powers in governments, and the balance of power within government, all of which were found in the political systems of various American Indian nations, influenced the formation of the Government of the United States of America[.]"

  2. "Native American Women: Images of Freedom," advertising flier for presentation at the University of Nebraska at Omaha by Sally Roesch Wagner and Johansen, March 12, 1990, prepared by Johansen.

  3. Undated (circa 1990) booklet: Greg Schaaf. "The Great Law of Peace and the Constitution of the United States of America." This booklet describes the Great Law of Peace, then places it side by side with the U.S. Constitution in an attempt to draw parallels in wording and other content. [See also: Erik Jensen (1991) and Schaaf (1989), under Jensen (1991)].

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