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The following is a local copy of the original file:

DOE Shield DOE Openness: Human Radiation Experiments: Roadmap to the Project
Oral Histories
Footnotes for Dr. John W. Gofman, M.D., Ph.D.
Roadmap to the Project

Oral Histories

Health Physicist William J. Bair, Ph.D.

Biochemist Waldo E. Cohn, Ph.D.

Dr. Patricia Wallace Durbin, Ph.D.

Merril Eisenbud

Dr. Nadine Foreman, M.D.

Radiologist Hymer L. Friedell, M.D., Ph.D.

Health Physicist Carl C. Gamertsfelder, Ph.D.

Dr. John W. Gofman, M.D., Ph.D.

Radiation Biologist Marvin Goldman, Ph.D.

Julie Langham Grilly

John W. Healy

Hematologist Karl F. Hubner, M.D.

Oral History of Radiologist Henry I. Kohn, M.D., Ph.D.

Medical Physicist Katherine L. Lathrop and Physician Paul V. Harper

Pathologist Clarence Lushbaugh, M.D.

Health Physicist Constantine J. Maletskos, Ph.D.

Radiologist Earl R. Miller, M.D.

Health Physicist Karl Z. Morgan, Ph.D.

Biochemist William D. Moss

Physiologist Nello Pace, Ph.D.

Cell Biologist Don Francis Petersen, Ph.D.

Radiobiologist Chet Richmond, Ph.D.

Physician James S. Robertson, M.D., Ph.D.

Biophysicist Robert E. Rowland, Ph.D.

Biophysicist Cornelius A. Tobias, Ph.D.

Biochemist John Randolph Totter, Ph.D.

Oncologist Helen Vodopick, M.D.

Dr. George Voelz, M.D.

Donner Lab Administrator Baird G. Whaley

  1. The college later merged with Western Reserve College, forming what is now Case Western Reserve University.

  2. Jobs performed in exchange for board (meals)

  3. The study of the formation and development of embryos; a human organism is considered an embryo approximately from the time the fertilized egg attaches to the uterine wall until about the eighth week of pregnancy

  4. The study of the chemical components of cellular and subcellular tissue

  5. A form of financial aid at a graduate school in which a student assists a professor, usually in academic or laboratory work

  6. The role of chemistry in the science concerned with the relations between heat and mechanical energy and the conversion of one into the other

  7. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); established in 1947

  8. The time required for half the atoms of a radioactive substance to decay

  9. U.S. physicist, 1901-58; a pioneer in nuclear physics who built the first cyclotron in 1930; established the University of California Radiation Laboratory in 1936 and served as its director until his death

  10. U.S. nuclear physicist (1904-67) who played a principal role in the development of the atomic bomb

  11. Positively charged particles, each consisting of two protons and two neutrons, emitted in radioactive decay or nuclear fission; an alpha particle is the nucleus of a helium atom.

  12. The supersecret project by the U.S. Government, Manhattan Engineer District, to develop the atomic bomb

  13. A unit of radiation dosage equal to the amount of ionizing radiation required to produce one electrostatic unit of charge per cubic centimeter of air

  14. One million

  15. E.I. du Pont, de Nemours and Company contructed and operated the Hanford site in Washington state from 1943 to 1946 for the Manhattan Project.

  16. For the transcript of the interview with Tobias, see DOE/EH-0480, Human Radiation Studies: Remembering the Early Years; Oral History of Biophysicist Cornelius A. Tobias, Ph.D. (July 1995).

  17. Any of the class of proteins that combine a lipid with a simple protein

  18. Professional Staff, Senior Policy and Research Analyst, presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments

  19. Helium, when inhaled, raises the pitch of one's voice, a fact now well-known and not uncommonly practiced for amusement wherever helium-filled toy balloons are found. 1995 findings, however, suggest that this practice can destroy brain cells.

  20. Diseases characterized by overproduction of red blood cells

  21. Produced in the bone marrow

  22. A polysaccharide present in animal tissues, especially the liver, that has anticoagulant properties and is used in medicine to prevent or dissolve blood clots

  23. Cells that are part of the endothelium, a single layer of smooth tissue that lines the heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and serous cavities

  24. A group of diseases characterized by thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls

  25. Radioactive tags on biomolecules used to study a biological, chemical, or physical system to study the system

  26. Medical specialists who study the nature, function, and diseases of the blood and of blood-forming organs

  27. The act of letting blood by opening a vein; phlebotomy

  28. American Association for the Advancement of Science

  29. Status thymicolymphaticus indicates a supposed enlargement of the thymus and lymph nodes in infants and children. Formerly, this was believed to be associated with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Additionally, it was erroneously believed that it might cause death during anesthesia from pressure on the trachea by the thymus.

  30. University of Southern California

  31. In the uterus; before being born

  32. Widespread yellow nodules or plaques composed of lipid-laden histiocytes, especially on the elbows and knees

  33. University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, where Hempelmann was a professor

  34. Isotopes formed by radioactive decay of another isotope

  35. Chairperson, Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments

  36. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

  37. A radioactive isotope of hydrogen having an atomic weight of three

  38. Edward Teller (1908-), Hungarian-born refugee physicist and the "Father of the Hydrogen Bomb."

  39. U.S. chemist (1901-) and Nobel Laureate, best known for his research in the role of Vitamin C in preventing the common cold

  40. A degenerative inflammatory disease characterized by impaired mobility of the spinal column, in some cases leading to fusion of joints

  41. A project in which the AEC planned to use hydrogen bombs to dig a new Panama Canal

  42. Dr. Gofman is referring not to the treaty, but to a Congressional debate over an Army proposal to deploy an antiballistic missile (ABM) system. Under the system then proposed, attacking ballistic missiles would be destroyed in the atmosphere over the Continental United States by nuclear-armed interceptor missiles. The 1969 Sternglass article was inspired by ABM opponents, who argued that thousands of Americans would die from the fallout produced by even a successful defense with nuclear-armed ABMs. Later ABM system proposals dropped the concept of nuclear-armed interceptor missiles. In 1969, U.S. and Soviet officials had just started to negotiate an ABM Treaty; it would not be ready to submit to the Senate until 1972.

  43. Defined by Dr. Gofman as the mucous expectorant from a tuberculosis patient

  44. Examined by means of a fluoroscope, a tube or box fitted with a screen coated with a fluorescent substance, used for viewing deep body structures by means of x-ray or other radiation

  45. Energy Research and Development Administration, predecessor agency to the Department of Energy

  46. For the transcript of the interview with Morgan, see DOE/EH-0475, Human Radiation Studies: Remembering the Early Years; Oral History of Health Physicist Karl Z. Morgan, Ph.D. (June 1995).

  47. National Research Council Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR)

  48. Radiation and Human Health, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco (1981)

  49. Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan

  50. Argonne National Laboratory outside Chicago

  51. Environmental Defense Fund

  52. The North American Free Trade Agreement, signed in 1994 by the United States, Canada, and Mexico

  53. For a transcript of the interview with Dr. Eisenbud, see DOE/EH-0456, Human Radiation Studies: Remembering the Early Years; Oral History of Merril Eisenbud. (May 1995).

  54. The AEC Division of Biology and Medicine, in response to the urgent need for radiation biomedical information, initiated Project Sunshine. The Project began an evaluation of the hazards associated with nuclear war and grew into a worldwide investigation of radioactive fallout levels in the environment and in human beings.

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