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Native American Political Systems
and the Evolution of Democracy:

An Annotated Bibliography

Bruce E. Johansen
Professor of Communication and
Native American Studies
University of Nebraska at Omaha

Before 1975

[Entries below were found after publication of Exemplar of Liberty (1991), which contains an historiography of the idea.]

Books, Scholarly and Specialty Journals

Armstrong, Virginia Irving, comp. I Have Spoken: American History Through the Voices of the Indians. Chicago: Swallow Press, 1971.

Baity, Elizabeth Chesley. Americans Before Columbus. New York: Viking, 1951.

(*) Beals, Katie and John J. Carusone. Native Americans: The Constitution of the Iroquois League. Oakland, California: United School District, 1972.

Boyd, Julian P. "Dr. Franklin: Friend of the Indian" in Ray Lokken, Jr., ed., Meet Dr. Franklin. Philadelphia: Franklin Institute, 1981.

Brandon, William. The American Heritage Book of Indians. New York: Dell, 1961.

Brandon, William. The American Heritage Book of Indians. New York: American Heritage/Simon & Schuster, 1961.

(*) Chamberlin, J. E. The Harrowing of Eden: White Attitudes Toward Native Americans. A Continuum Book. New York: Seabury Press, 1975.

(*) Cohen, Felix. Handbook of Federal Indian Law. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1942.

Cohen, Felix. "Americanizing the White Man." The American Scholar 21:2(1952), pp. 177-191.

(*) Eckert, Allan W. Wilderness Empire: A Narrative. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1969.

(*) Farb, Peter. Man's Rise to Civilization as Shown by the Indians of North America From Primeval Times to the Coming of the Industrial State. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1968. Grant, Bruce. American Indians Yesterday and Today. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1958. [Republished in 1989 by Wings Press (Random House) as Concise Encyclopedia of the American Indian.]

(*) Griffis, William E. Sir William Johnson and the Six Nations. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1891. (*) Hallowell, A. Irving. "The Backwash of the Frontier: The Impact of the Indian on American Culture," in Walker Wyman and Clifton Kroeber, eds., The Frontier in Perspective. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1957.

Hamilton, Charles. Cry of the Thunderbird: The American Indian's Own Story. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972.

(*) Henry, Thomas R. Wilderness Messiah: the Story of Hiawatha and the Iroquois. New York: Bonanza Books, 1955.

Hislop, Codman. Rivers of America: The Mohawk. New York: Rinehart & Co., 1948.

Josephy, Alvin. The Patriot Chiefs. New York: Viking, 1958.

Josephy, Alvin. The Indian Heritage of America. New York: Bantam, 1969.

Kownslar, Allan O. Discovering American History. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1974.

(*) Kramer, Lucy. Indians Yesterday and Today. Washington, D.C.: Interior Department, 1941.

(*) Kleiner, Jack. "United States Law on American Indians." Case and Comment 77:4(July/August, 1972): 3-4. Moquin, Wayne, ed. Great Documents in American Indian History. New York: Praeger, 1973.

Morgan, Lewis Henry. League of the Ho-de-no-sau-nee, or Iroquois [1851]. New York: Burt Franklin, 1901.

(*) Parker, Arthur C. "The Constitution of the Five Nations," in William N. Fenton, ed., Parker on the Iroquois. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1968.

Porter, C. Fayne. Our Indian Heritage: Profiles of Twelve Great Leaders. New York: Chilton Books, 1964.

(*) Reaman, G. Elmore. The Trail of the Iroquois Indians: How the Iroquois Indians Saved Canada for the British Empire. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1967.

(*) Speck, Paul G. The Iroquois: A Study in Cultural Evolution. Bloomfield Hills, Mich.: Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bulletin #23, October, 1945.

(*) Stirling, Matthew. "America's First Settlers: the Indians." National Geographic, November, 1937.

Tebbel, John and Keith Jennison. The American Indian Wars. New York: Bonanza Books, 1960.

Tehanetorens [Ray Fadden]. History of the Oneida Nation. Hogansburg, N.Y.: Akwesasne Mohawk Counselor Organization, n.d.

Underhill, Ruth. Red Man's America: A History of Indians in the United States, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953.

(*) Van Doren, Carl. Benjamin Franklin. New York: The Viking Press, 1938.

Vogel, Virgil J. This Country Was Ours: A Documentary History of the American Indian. New York: Harper & Row, 1974.

Wallace, Paul A. W. The White Roots of Peace. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1946.

(*) Wallace, Paul A. W. "Cooper's Indians," in James Fenimore Cooper: A Re-appraisal. Cooperstown, N.Y.: New York State Historical Society, 1954.

Wilson, Edmund. Apologies to the Iroquois. New York: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, 1960.

Wissler, Clark. Indians of the United States: Four Centuries of Their History and Culture. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1940.

Zolla, Elemire. The Writer and the Shaman: A Morphology of the American Indian. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1973.

Newspapers, Magazines,
Pamphlets and Newsletters, dissertations

Akweks, Aren [Ray Fadden]. "The Formation of the Ho-de-no-saune or League of the Five Nations. St. Regis, N.Y.: Akwesasne Mohawk Counselor Organization, 1948.

(*) Akweks, Aren [Ray Fadden]. The Creation. Akwesasne Mohawk Counselor Organization, 1948.

Eastman, Charles. American Indian Magazine, 7:3(1919), pp. 145-152.

Fenton, William N. "The Science of Anthropology and the Iroquois Indians." Bulletin of the New York State Archaeology Society No. 6 (March, 1956), pp. 10-14.

(*) Mathur, Mary E. The Iroquois in Time and Space: A Native American Nationalistic Movement. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1971.

McLellan, Howard. "Indian Magna Carta Writ in Wampum Belts." New York Times, June 7, 1925, n.p.

Newell, William B, ed. The Six Nations. 2:2(April, 1928), p. 7.

(*) Wallace, Paul A.W. "The Return of Hiawatha." New York History XXIX:4 (October, 1948), pp. 385-403.

Other Item

  1. An exchange of letters between Paul A.W. Wallace, professor of English at the University of Pennsylvania and author of The White Roots of Peace, and Major H.C. Durston, Onondaga Historical Association, Syracuse, N.Y., June 4, 1945. Wallace refers to a conversation between the two men "the other day," and cites sources such as Carl Van Doren, Benjamin Franklin, Lewis Henry Morgan, et. al. in support of an assertion that the Iroquois League's model helped shape Benjamin Franklin's Albany Plan of Union. Wallace writes that the sources he has in hand contain "no hint...of any explicit connection between the Iroquois League and the Constitutional Convention."

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